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Niggle Shit Part 2

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Niggle Shit Part 2

Post by Inbō Sake on Sat Nov 05, 2011 8:26 pm

Licensing and Insurance Laws


Introduction

This module will introduce you to the various licensing and insurance requirements that the State of Florida requires you to comply with.
5101a_paul_license.jpg
Florida has implemented a graduated licensing law which contains certain curfew provisions with which you must be familiar. The graduated licensing law outlines the times you can drive if you hold a learner’s permit.

In Florida, there are two motor vehicle insurance laws:

Financial Responsibility Law
No-Fault Law

It is important that you understand these laws because if you do not have the proper insurance, you can lose your driver license and license plate(s) and have to pay large fees to get them back.

Your insurance company will issue you a Florida Insurance I.D. Card. This card must be kept in a place that is easy to reach from the driver’s seat in your vehicle. You must always be ready to show a law enforcement officer proof that you have the required insurance and it is current. The consequences for not having the card are substantial.

Insurance provides a method of paying for loss or damage if you are involved in a collision. Vehicle insurance is a critical part of your driving privilege. You must have the proper insurance coverage.

This module introduces licensing and insurance laws. The topics that will be covered include:

Graduated Licensing
Financial Responsibility Law
Insurance Coverage
No-Fault Law
General Information

Graduated Licensing

In July 1996, Florida implemented a graduated licensing law which contained curfew provisions which restricted teenage driving at night. This is the period when alcohol-related crashes are most likely to occur. This change may have affected the number of alcohol-related crashes.
5103_gdl_parent.jpg
All drivers 15 to 17 years old must hold a learner’s license for at least one year before applying for an intermediate license.

During the learner’s license phase, 15 to 17 year old drivers must have a licensed driver over 21 years old in the front passenger seat.

If you have a learner's permit, you may only drive during daylight hours for the first three months. After three months, you may drive until 10:00 p.m.

Once you have had your learner's license for one year without any traffic convictions, you will receive an intermediate license.

If you have an intermediate license and are 16 years old, you may drive unaccompanied between the hours of 6:00 a.m. and 11:00 p.m. If you are 17 years old, you may drive unaccompanied between 5:00 a.m. and 1:00 a.m. If you have a passenger at least 21 years old sitting in the front passenger seat, you may drive at any time.

You will have an intermediate license until you turn 18 years old. After that, all restrictions are removed from your license and you have a full privilege license (7).

Financial Responsibility Law
5104_crash_scene.jpg
The Financial Responsibility Law states that owners and operators of motor vehicles must be financially responsible for damages and/or injuries they may cause to others when a motor vehicle crash occurs.

This law requires you to have bodily injury liability insurance during the following times:

A crash where you are at fault and injuries have occurred
A crash where your vehicle has caused damage to the property of others
A citation for DUI, which results in a revocation
A revocation for Habitual Traffic Offender
A revocation for any serious offense where the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles is required to revoke your license

Your driver license and/or license plates will be suspended for a period of up to three years if you do not have the proper insurance and are involved in one of these situations (FS 324).

Insurance Coverage
5105_cop_stop.jpg
You must have the following minimum insurance coverage:

$10,000 Bodily Injury Liability (BIL) (to one person).
$20,000 Bodily Injury Liability (to two or more persons).
$10,000 Property Damage Liability (PDL), or
$30,000 Combined single limits.

If you are involved in a violation and you do not have insurance to comply with the Financial Responsibility Law, your driver license and/or license plates will be suspended for up to three years. You will have to pay a $15 reinstatement fee and show the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles certified proof of full liability insurance on Form SR-22 for three years from the original suspension date to get your driving privilege back. In addition, if you are the driver or the owner of a vehicle which is in a crash that is your fault, this department can require you to pay for the damages before your driving privilege is reinstated (FS 324.021, FS 324.131, FS 324.121, FS 324.071).

Under this law, to protect yourself and others, you should have liability insurance on any motor vehicle you own or drive, including motorcycles. In addition, you must maintain insurance coverage throughout the vehicle registration period or you must surrender the license plate(s) to any driver license office.

No-Fault Law

The Florida No-Fault Law requires owners of motor vehicles with four or more wheels (excluding taxis and limousines), that has been in Florida for at least 90 days or non-consecutive days during the past 365 days to purchase a policy delivered or issued for delivery in Florida.

The minimum coverage is:

$10,000 of Personal Injury Protection (PIP)
$10,000 of Property Damage Liability (PDL)

You cannot buy a license plate and registration for a car, or other four-wheel vehicle, without having coverage issued in Florida. Once you have this insurance, anytime you renew it, fail to renew it, cancel it, or the insurance company cancels it, the insurance company must notify the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles. The department will then notify you to provide proof of new coverage.

If you fail to provide proof of insurance, your driver license and license plates will be suspended for up to three years.

If your driver license and license plates are suspended for not having insurance under the No-Fault Law, you will have to pay $150 and show proof of current insurance to get them back. If you are suspended for a second time within three years, you will pay $250. A third offense within three years, and you will have to pay $500. Also, if your driver license and plates have been under suspension for 30 days or more for a no-fault insurance violation, a police officer can seize your license plates immediately (FS 627.730-7405).

General Information

You will be issued a Florida Insurance I.D. Card from your insurance company. You must have this card ready to show to any law enforcement officer to prove that you have the required insurance. If you don’t, you may receive a citation for not having proof of insurance. If your driver license or license plates are suspended for not obeying either of these laws, you will not be able to get a temporary license for any reason, not even for work purposes. If you make a false statement or commit a forgery about your motor vehicle insurance, you can be guilty of a second degree misdemeanor.

The Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles will always provide you with an opportunity to prove insurance coverage or be heard before being suspended. You can comply by:

Purchasing a motor vehicle insurance policy from a company licensed to do business in Florida.
Obtaining a Financial Responsibility Certificate from the Bureau of Financial Responsibility after posting a satisfactory surety bond of a company licensed to do business in Florida.
Obtaining a Financial Responsibility Certificate from the Bureau of Financial Responsibility by depositing cash or securities with the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles.
Obtaining a Self Insurance Certificate from the Bureau of Financial Responsibility by providing satisfactory evidence of possessing a net unencumbered capital.

Remember: Automobile insurance is an important part of your driving privilege. Protect yourself and others by having and keeping the proper insurance coverage.


¯¯¯¯Signature¯¯¯¯
Dark Salmon, Coral


For vain is all the toil and trouble
Vain is all the heartbreak
In the end I'll find my solace
In an earthen cradle

So good night
avatar
Inbō Sake
Missing-Nin

Posts : 178
Reputation : 1
Join date : 2010-06-05
Location : Iwagakure no Sato

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Re: Niggle Shit Part 2

Post by Inbō Sake on Sat Nov 05, 2011 9:04 pm

Review

In July 1996, Florida implemented a graduated licensing law which contained curfew provisions which restricted teenage driving at night. Any driver 15 to 17 years old must hold a learner’s license for at least one year and after that an intermediate license until they turn 18.

Florida’s Financial Responsibility Law requires owners and operators of motor vehicles to be financially responsible for damages and/or injuries they may cause to others when a motor vehicle crash happens. This law requires that you have bodily injury liability insurance.

The State of Florida mandates that you carry certain minimum insurance coverage amounts. If you are involved in a violation and you don’t have the proper coverage, your driver license and/or license plates will be suspended for up to three years.

The Florida No-Fault Law requires owners of motor vehicles with four or more wheels (excluding taxis and limousines), that have been in the state for at least 90 days or non-consecutive days during the past 365 days to purchase a policy delivered or issued for delivery in Florida. You cannot buy a license plate and registration for a car, or other four-wheel vehicle, without having coverage issued in Florida. There are serious consequences if you are involved in a collision and you don’t have the correct insurance coverage.

You will be issued a Florida Insurance I.D. Card from your insurance company. You must have this card ready to show to any law enforcement officer to prove that you have the required insurance. If you don’t, you may receive a ticket for not having proof of insurance. If you make a false statement or commit a forgery about your motor vehicle insurance, you can be guilty of a second degree misdemeanor.

Automobile insurance is an important part of your driving privilege. Protect yourself and others by having and keeping the proper insurance coverage.

Alcohol-Related Laws and Consequences


Introduction

This module is about the consequences that can result from breaking the Florida DUI laws.

Any driver less than 21 years of age who is stopped by law enforcement and has a breath or blood alcohol level of .02 or higher will automatically have his or her driving privilege suspended for six months (FS 322.2616).

The courts will have little to no sympathy when it comes to alcohol-related incidents, especially when a crash results in injury. If you are involved in an alcohol-related incident, be prepared to be fined and spend time in prison.

Learning Objectives

This module introduces you to the Florida alcohol-related laws and consequences of breaking those laws. The topics that will be covered include:

Implied Consent
Minimum Drinking Age
Progressive DUI Laws
Consequences
Point System

Implied Consent

If you refuse to submit to a breath, urine, or blood test, it is admissible as evidence in DUI criminal proceedings. Second or subsequent refusal is considered to be a misdemeanor of the first degree.

The first time you refuse, your license will be suspended for one year. If you refuse a second time, your license will be suspended for 18 months (FS 316.1932).

If necessary, your blood may be drawn in DUI cases involving serious bodily injury or death by authorized medical personnel with the use of reasonable force by the arresting officer, even if you, as the driver, refuse.

If you are not capable of refusal because you are unconscious or there is some other mental or physical condition preventing you from giving your consent, the authorities still have the right to perform the test. A blood test may be administered whether or not you are told that your failure to submit to such a blood test will result in the suspension of your privilege to operate a motor vehicle.

Portable alcohol breath testing devices can be used for persons under the age of 21. The reading is admissible as evidence in any administrative hearing conducted under the proper state statue.

Minimum Drinking Age

In Florida, the possession of alcoholic beverages by persons under the age of 21 is against the law.

The first time you are caught in violation of this law, you will be convicted of a second degree misdemeanor which can include up to 60 days in jail. Additional convictions are considered first degree misdemeanors, which can mean up to one year in jail. In addition, you can be fined up to $500 for a first offense, and $1,000 for another offense can be imposed.

If you are under the age of 18, your license can be suspended for six months to one year for the first offense, or two years for second offense (FS 562.111).

Progressive DUI Laws

In the State of Florida, the penalties for DUI become progressively more severe depending upon the number of convictions and the blood alcohol level found.

There is a specific fine schedule established to address the penalties for DUI convictions.

The first conviction results in a fine of not less than $500, or more than $1,000. If your Blood/Breath Alcohol Level (BAL) is .15 or higher or there is a minor in the vehicle, the fine is not less than $1,000, or more than $2,000.

The second conviction results in a fine of not less than $1,000, or more than $2,000. If your BAL is .15 or higher or there is a minor in the vehicle, the fine goes up to not less than $2,000, or more than $4,000.

If you are convicted for a third offense, you will receive a fine of not less than $2,000, or more than $5,000. If your BAL is .15 or higher or there is minor in the vehicle, the fine will be not less than $4,000.

If you are convicted of a fourth conviction you will be fined not less than $2,000 (FS 316.193).

Consequences

In addition to the fines, there are other penalties that may be imposed for DUI convictions. They include imprisonment, impounding of your vehicle, installation of an interlock device, and a felony conviction.


Imprisonment

The first conviction may result in not more than six months in prison. If your BAL is .15 or higher or there is a minor in vehicle, the sentence goes up to not more than nine months.

The second conviction results in a sentence of no more than nine months. If the second conviction occurs within five years of the first offense, there is a mandatory imprisonment of at least 10 days of which at least 48 hours of confinement must be consecutive.

If you receive a third conviction for DUI within 10 years of the second conviction, you will spend at least 30 days in prison. Once again, at least 48 hours of your confinement must be consecutive. If the third conviction for DUI occurs more than 10 years after the second conviction, you may be imprisoned for no more than 12 months.

If you receive a fourth or subsequent conviction, the sentence will be for not more than five years. However, it could be more since you will be classified as a habitual/violent offender (FS 316.193).


5206b_conviction_courthouse.jpgImpoundment or Immobilization of Vehicle

Impoundment or immobilization of your vehicle may occur unless your family has no other means of transportation.

The first conviction may result in your vehicle being impounded or immobilized for 10 days.

The second conviction within five years of the first offense may result in your vehicle being impounded or immobilized for 30 days.

The third conviction within 10 years of the first offense may result in your vehicle being impounded or immobilized for 90 days.

The impoundment or immobilization of your vehicle may not occur concurrently with your time in prison. The court may dismiss the order of impoundment of any vehicle you own if the vehicle is operated solely by your employees or by any business you own (FS 316.193).


Ignition Interlock Device

An ignition interlock device is a breath analyzer on your vehicle that is electronically connected to the ignition. This device is about the size of a cellular phone. When you breathe into the unit for several seconds, it measures your breath alcohol level and compares it with predetermined limits. If your BAL is over 0.05, your vehicle will not start. If your BAL is within the allowable range, your vehicle will start. Then, as you’re driving, you will be required to take periodic rolling retests.

The first conviction of a DUI may result in the court ordering the installation of a department-approved ignition interlock device for up to six months. If the driver was accompanied by a person younger than 18 years old in the vehicle, it will be mandatory that they install an ignition interlock device. A second offense of driving under the influence with a minor in the car would result in the device being installed for not less than 2 continuous years.

The second conviction results in mandatory installation for at least one year.

The third conviction occuring more than 10 years after the date of a prior conviction results in mandatory installation for at least two years (FS 316.193, FS 322.2715).

The authorized installer of the ignition interlock device will collect $12 in addition to any fees authorized by rule for the installation and maintenance of the device. Those fees will be deposited into the Highway Safety Operating Trust Fund and will be used for the operation of the Ignition Interlock Device Program (FS 322.2715).


DUI Felony Conviction

If you are convicted of a third DUI offense within 10 years of a second DUI conviction or a fourth or subsequent DUI, it is considered a Third Degree Felony with a fine of no more than $5,000 and/or five years of imprisonment.

If you cause serious bodily injury while driving under the influence or if you are considered to be a habitual/violent felony offender, you will be guilty of a Third Degree Felony with a fine of not more than $5,000 fine and/or five years of imprisonment.

If you are convicted of manslaughter and do not have a prior DUI, you may be eligible for a hardship reinstatement (FS 316.193).


Driver License Revocation Periods for DUI

The first conviction may result in a minimum of 180 days of revocation with the maximum being one year.

If you receive a second conviction within five years of the first conviction, you may receive a minimum of five years of revocation. You might be eligible for hardship reinstatement after one year. Other second offenders may receive a minimum of 180 days of revocation with the maximum being one year.

If you are convicted a third time within 10 years of your second conviction, the minimum is a ten year revocation. Other third offenders may receive a minimum of 180 days of revocation with the maximum being one year.

A fourth conviction (regardless of when prior convictions occurred) or murder with a Motor Vehicle results in a mandatory permanent revocation (FS 322.28).

Even if your driver license has been permanently revoked because you have been convicted of manslaughter while driving under the influence, you may be able to get a restricted license. If ten years have passed since a driver's privileges were revoked and there are no prior convictions for a DUI-related offense, he or she may be eligible for a hardship license. To qualify, the driver must prove that he or she has not been arrested for a drug-related offense, has not driven a motor vehicle without a license, and has been drug free since his or her conviction. The driver must also complete a DUI program. The Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles will then determine if the driver meets all the requirements and may reinstate the driver's privileges so that the driver may drive to and from work only. Effective October 1st, 2011, the ten year wait period changes to a five year wait period (FS 32.271).

Point System

The State of Florida assesses drivers convicted of various driving infractions a certain number of points. Points are cumulative and can result in the loss of your driver license. Here are the points you will receive for common offenses. They can add up quickly and at a minimum can result in the loss of your license and increased insurance premiums.

Leaving the scene of a crash resulting in property damage of more than $50 = six points.

Conviction for unlawful speeding that results in a collision = six points.

Conviction for reckless driving = four points.

Passing a stopped school bus with its flashers operating = four points.

Failing to obey a traffic control signal/sign/device = four points.

Driving during restricted hours = three points.

Driving at an unlawful speed: 16 mph or more over lawful or posted speed = four points.

Driving at an unlawful speed: 15 mph or less over lawful or posted speed = three points.

As a reminder, note that fines are doubled when infractions occur within a school zone or construction zone, with possible civil penalties of up to $1,000. You may also be required to complete a driving school course.

All other moving violations (including parking on a highway outside the limits of municipalities) = three points.

Caught with an open container of alcohol as an operator = three points.

Conviction for a child restraint violation = three points.

It does not matter if you are convicted in an out-of-state court or in a federal court, you will receive the same number of points outlined above (FS 322.27).


¯¯¯¯Signature¯¯¯¯
Dark Salmon, Coral


For vain is all the toil and trouble
Vain is all the heartbreak
In the end I'll find my solace
In an earthen cradle

So good night
avatar
Inbō Sake
Missing-Nin

Posts : 178
Reputation : 1
Join date : 2010-06-05
Location : Iwagakure no Sato

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Re: Niggle Shit Part 2

Post by Inbō Sake on Sat Nov 05, 2011 9:19 pm

Review

This topic introduced you to various alcohol-related laws and the consequences of breaking those laws.

If you refuse to submit to a breath, urine, or blood test in the State of Florida, it becomes admissible as evidence in DUI criminal proceedings. If you are not capable of refusing to submit to a test because you are unconscious, the authorities still have the right to perform the test. And for people under the age of 21, portable alcohol breath testing devices can be used and the evidence is admissible in any administrative hearing.

In the State of Florida, the possession of alcoholic beverages by persons under the age of 21 is against the law. There are severe consequences for anyone caught breaking this law.

In the State of Florida, the penalties for DUI become progressively more severe depending upon the number of convictions and the blood alcohol level found. There is a specific fine schedule established to address the penalties for DUI convictions.

In addition to the fines, there are other penalties that can be imposed for DUI convictions. They include imprisonment, impounding of your vehicle, installation of an interlock device, a felony conviction, and driver license revocation periods.

The State of Florida assesses drivers convicted of various driving infractions a certain number of points. The points are cumulative and can result in the loss of your driver license.

Introduction

There are many reasons your license can be revoked, suspended, and cancelled. There are also mandatory restrictions that apply to drivers who are under the age of 18, such as the various times a driver is not allowed to drive.

If your driving privilege is suspended or revoked, what are the next steps?

This module will cover those topics and Florida’s ZERO TOLERANCE law - it is not just a familiar phrase, it is a serious law to remember.


This module covers driver license revocation, suspension, and cancellation. The topics that will be covered include:

Revocation
Suspension
Mandatory Restrictions for Minors
Reinstatement and Administrative Hearings
Zero Tolerance

Revocation

Revocation of a license is defined as a formal action to terminate a license. The license, from then on cannot be renewed or restored. It can only be replaced when you apply for a new license.

Your license must be revoked if you are found guilty of:

Driving while under the influence of alcohol, drugs, or other controlled substances.
Committing a felony in which a motor vehicle is used.
Not stopping to give help when the vehicle you are driving is involved in a crash causing death or personal injury.
Lying about the ownership or operation of motor vehicles.
Having three cases of reckless driving within one year. Forfeiting bail and not going to court to avoid being convicted of reckless driving counts the same as a conviction.
Committing an immoral act in which a motor vehicle was used.
Committing three major offenses or 15 offenses for which you receive points within a 5-year period.
Committing a felony for drug possession.
Having vision worse than the standard minimum requirements.
Racing on the roadway (FS 322.264, FS 322.26).


Disqualification for Commercial Drivers

The Administrative Disqualification Law states that a commercial driver will be prohibited from operating a commercial vehicle if convicted of the following:

First disqualification for driving a commercial vehicle with an unlawful blood alcohol level (.04 or above): 1 year disqualification
Driving a motor vehicle while he or she is under the influence of alcohol or a controlled substance: 1 year disqualification
Refusal to submit to a breath, urine, or blood test arising from the operation of a commercial motor vehicle: permenantly disqualified

Suspension

Suspension, on the other hand, is less severe and results only in the temporary withdrawal of a person's license or driving privileges.

Your license can be suspended if you:

Make a fraudulent driver license application
Allow your license to be used for a purpose that is against the law
Are convicted in a traffic court and the court orders that your license be suspended
Refuse to take a test to show if you are driving while under the influence of alcohol or drugs
Misuse a restricted license
Earn a certain number of points for traffic offenses on the point system
Break a traffic law and fail to pay your fine or appear in court as directed

5304b_bus_with_lights.jpgThere are also crimes that are not related to your vehicle which warrant the suspension of your license. They include:

Failure to pay child support
Failure to carry insurance on your vehicle
Failure to stop for a school bus
The use of tobacco if you are underage
Retail theft
Truancy

Your license can be suspended for 30 days if you accumulate 12 points within a 12-month period. Your license can be suspended for three months if you accumulate 18 points within an 18-month period. Your license can be suspended for one year if you accumulate 24 points within a 36-month period. When the courts are computing points and suspensions, the offense dates of all convictions are used. Three points will be deducted from your record if your driving privileges have been suspended only once under the point system and has been reinstated. To have this occur, you must have complied with all other requirements. NOTE: Serving a point suspension does not prohibit your convictions from being used to accumulate additional suspensions or revocations (FS 316.172, FS 812.015, FS 322.245, FS 322.2615).


Cancellation

Cancellation occurs if your license was issued because of a mistake or fraud (giving false information or identification) or because you did not complete a department mandated course.

Mandatory Restrictions for Minors
5305_restricted-look-on-face.jpg
If you are under the age of 18 and accumulate six or more points within a 12-month period, you are automatically restricted for one year to driving for "Business Purposes ONLY." If any additional points are accumulated, the restriction is extended for 90 days for every additional point received (FS 322.27, FS 322.271).


Time Restrictions

If you are a licensed driver and are under the age of 17, you may not operate a motor vehicle between 11:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m., unless you are accompanied by a driver who is 21 years of age or older who holds a valid driver license, or you are driving to and from work.

If you are a licensed driver who is 17 years of age, you may not operate a motor vehicle between 1:00 a.m. and 5:00 a.m., unless you are accompanied by a driver who is 21 years of age or older who holds a valid driver license, or you are driving to and from work (FS 322.1615).

Reinstatement and Administrative Hearings

If your driving privilege is suspended or revoked, you may be eligible to apply for a hardship license or reinstatement.

For eligibility information, you should contact the local Bureau of Administrative Reviews office, driver licenses office, or the Customer Service Center in Tallahassee.

Even if your driver license has been permanently revoked because you have been convicted of manslaughter while driving under the influence, you may be able to get a restricted license. If ten years have passed since a driver's privileges were revoked and there are no prior convictions for a DUI-related offense, he or she may be eligible for a hardship license. To qualify, the driver must prove that he or she has not been arrested for a drug-related offense, has not driven a motor vehicle without a license, and has been drug free since his or her conviction. The driver must also complete a DUI program. The Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles will then determine if the driver meets all the requirements and may reinstate the driver's privileges so that the driver may drive to and from work only. Effective October 1st, 2011, the ten year wait period changes to a five year wait period (FS 32.271).

Not only can you be charged with DUI if you are found to be driving or in actual physical control of a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcoholic beverages, but also under the influence of controlled substances.

Controlled substances that can lead to a DUI include:

Prescription drugs
Depressants
Stimulants
Narcotics
Hallucinogens
Inhalants


You will be administratively suspended if you have a breath or blood alcohol level of .08 or above or refuse to submit to a chemical test. The suspension requires a mandatory period without a license. The driver may request a formal or informal review of the suspension by the department within 10 days after the date of issuance by the notice of suspension. This suspension is in addition to any penalties directed by the court.

Zero Tolerance

If you are less than 21 years of age, have been stopped by law enforcement, and have a breath or blood alcohol level of .02 or higher, you will automatically have your driving privilege suspended for six months.

If you are a driver under 21 with a breath or blood alcohol level of .05 or higher, you will be required to attend a substance abuse course. An evaluation will be completed and your parents or legal guardians will be notified of the results if you are under the age of 19.

If you have a breath or blood alcohol level of .08 or higher, you can be convicted for driving under the influence (DUI). If you refuse to take a test, your driving privilege is automatically suspended for one year (FS 322.2616).

Review

In this module you learned about Florida’s laws related to driver license revocation, suspension, and cancellation.
5308b_police.jpg
The revocation of a license is defined as a formal action to terminate a license, which from then on cannot be renewed or restored, but can only be replaced when you apply for a new license. There are many violations that may result in your license being revoked.

Suspension is less severe. It is the temporary withdrawal of your license or driving privileges. Similar to revocation, there are multiple ways the court system can suspend your license. Your license can also be cancelled if it was issued by mistake or because fraud was discovered.

If you are under the age of 18 and accumulate six or more points within a 12-month period you are automatically restricted for one year to driving for business purposes only. There are also certain driving time restrictions that apply to a driver who is under the age of 17.

If your driving privilege is suspended or revoked, you may be eligible to apply for a hardship license or reinstatement. You need to check with your local Bureau of Administrative Reviews office.

You can also be charged with DUI if it is determined that you are under the influence of certain controlled substances such as prescription drugs. The State of Florida has a zero tolerance policy when it comes to driving under the influence of alcohol. You will have your license suspended if you are less than 21 and you have a BAL of .02 or higher.


¯¯¯¯Signature¯¯¯¯
Dark Salmon, Coral


For vain is all the toil and trouble
Vain is all the heartbreak
In the end I'll find my solace
In an earthen cradle

So good night
avatar
Inbō Sake
Missing-Nin

Posts : 178
Reputation : 1
Join date : 2010-06-05
Location : Iwagakure no Sato

View user profile

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Re: Niggle Shit Part 2

Post by Inbō Sake on Sat Nov 05, 2011 9:43 pm

Review

In this module you learned about Florida’s laws related to driver license revocation, suspension, and cancellation.
5308b_police.jpg
The revocation of a license is defined as a formal action to terminate a license, which from then on cannot be renewed or restored, but can only be replaced when you apply for a new license. There are many violations that may result in your license being revoked.

Suspension is less severe. It is the temporary withdrawal of your license or driving privileges. Similar to revocation, there are multiple ways the court system can suspend your license. Your license can also be cancelled if it was issued by mistake or because fraud was discovered.

If you are under the age of 18 and accumulate six or more points within a 12-month period you are automatically restricted for one year to driving for business purposes only. There are also certain driving time restrictions that apply to a driver who is under the age of 17.

If your driving privilege is suspended or revoked, you may be eligible to apply for a hardship license or reinstatement. You need to check with your local Bureau of Administrative Reviews office.

You can also be charged with DUI if it is determined that you are under the influence of certain controlled substances such as prescription drugs. The State of Florida has a zero tolerance policy when it comes to driving under the influence of alcohol. You will have your license suspended if you are less than 21 and you have a BAL of .02 or higher.

Introduction

During a crash, three collisions occur:

The vehicle hitting an object (other car, tree, brick wall).
The occupant hitting the inside of the vehicle (driver thrown against windshield, passenger thrown from back to front seat).
The inside organs and tissue of the occupant hitting his/her skeletal structure (brain moving forward until it hits the skull, heart ripped from arteries until hitting the ribcage).

Whenever an object is in motion, it will continue to travel forward until it is stopped.

Automotive engineers designed your vehicle to help reduce injuries and fatalities resulting from crashes.

There are several impact and restraint systems installed in your vehicle to absorb the energy of a crash and act as a buffer so your occupants' injuries are reduced.

In addition to safety features, Florida requires other functional components in your vehicle. This module will introduce what is required and why these features are in place to lower your risk of injury or death if you are involved in a crash.

Learning Objectives

This module is about vehicle safety systems and equipment in your vehicle designed to reduce the risk of injury or death if you are involved in a crash. Seat belts are primary enforcement in Florida. Primary enforcement means law enforcement is allowed to ticket a driver for not wearing a seat belt. The topics that will be covered include:

Safety Belts
Head Restraints, Air Bags, and Child Passenger Restraints
Required Safety Features
Other Florida Equipment Standards
The Braking System

Safety Belts
6103_restraint_seatbelt_buckle_closeup.jpg
Safety belts are one of the most important safety features in your vehicle. They prevent or reduce injuries and fatalities by restraining you in your vehicle or preventing you from being thrown from your vehicle. Safety belts usually consist of a lap belt (which restrains your lower body) and a shoulder belt (which restrains your upper body.)


Florida Safety Belt Law

The Florida Safety Belt Law states:

It is unlawful for any person to operate a motor vehicle unless each passenger of the vehicle under the age of 18 years is restrained by a safety belt or by a child restraint device.
It is unlawful for any person to operate a motor vehicle in this state unless the person is restrained by a safety belt.
It is unlawful for any person, regardless of age, to be a passenger in the front seat of a motor vehicle unless such person is restrained by a safety belt (FS 316.614).

"Motor vehicle" means any passenger vehicle, but does not include a school bus, a bus used for the transportation of persons for compensation, a farm tractor, a truck of a net weight of more than 5,000 pounds, a motorcycle, moped, or bicycle.

This does not apply to a passenger or operator with a physically disabling condition or medical condition that would prevent appropriate restraint in a safety belt. If the condition is duly certified by a licensed physician and surgeon or by a licensed chiropractor who shall state the nature of the condition, as well as the reason the restraint is inappropriate, the passenger or operator will not be required to wear a safety belt.

Head Restraints, Air Bags, and Child Passenger Restraints


Head Restraints
6104a_head_position_teen_female.jpg
According to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, neck strains and sprains are the most serious injury reported in 30 to 40% of auto insurance claims. Proper positioning of head restraint can dramatically reduce neck injuries.


Proper Positioning and Adjustment

A head restraint should be at least as high as the head's center of gravity, about 3.5 inches (or nine centimeters) below the top. The backset, or distance behind the head, should be as small as possible. Backsets of more than 4 inches (about 10 centimeters) have been associated with increased symptoms of neck injury in collisions.


Air Bags

Air bags are a form of passive vehicle restraint that provide a cushion to reduce the force of impact in a collision and distribute it over a wider surface area of the body. Serious chest and head injuries often result when a driver or passenger slams into the steering wheel or rim during head-on collisions.

Air bags are usually located in the steering wheel and the dashboard but may also be found in side door compartments of some vehicles. They are designed to inflate instantly when an impact occurs over a certain speed and, when used in conjunction with a safety belt, can provide the driver and passengers of a vehicle with much better protection against serious injury or death from a collision.

Air bags are supplemental safety restraints and should never be considered as the only adequate safety measure. Air bags are designed to deploy only under certain conditions, usually in the event of a medium to severe frontal collision. Proper use of your vehicle's safety belt restraints is needed to offer protection in all other situations, such as a side or rear collision. Only when used in conjunction with your vehicle's safety belts can air bags be effective.


Special Air Bag Cautions: Children and Small Adults

Air bags, while an efficient safety device, can be dangerous or fatal under certain circumstances. Adults should not sit closer than 10 inches from the steering wheel.

Small children and infants should NEVER ride in rear-facing vehicle carriers in front passenger seats equipped with air bags. If a child over one year old must ride in the front seat with a passenger side air bag, put the child in a front-facing child safety seat, a booster seat, or a correct fitting lap/shoulder belt and move the seat as far back as possible.


Child Passenger Restraints
6104c_cps.jpg
Motor vehicle crashes cause about one of every three injury deaths among children of age 12 and younger. Among those age 5-12, crash injuries are the leading cause of death. Proper restraint use reduces crash risk for infants and children of all ages.

Florida law requires every child, five years of age or younger, properly use a crash-tested, federally approved child restraint device. For children aged three or younger, the restraint device must be a separate vehicle carrier or a vehicle manufacturer's integrated child seat. For children age four through five years, a separate vehicle carrier, an integrated child seat, or a seat belt may be used (FS 316.613).

NOTE: All passengers under the age of 18 must be restrained by a safety belt or child restraint device. If you are stopped for a safety belt violation for a person under 18 in your vehicle that is not secured in accordance with Florida law, you (the driver) will receive the citation. This can include a fine of $30 and additional court costs. You will also receive three points on your driving record (FS 318.18; 316.614).

Although you should always consult your owner's manual, here are some additional tips for using a child safety seat: 6104d_cps2.jpg

The back seat is generally the safest place in the vehicle for all children to ride.
Generally, children under 20 pounds and about one year of age should ride in a safety seat secured to the back seat facing the rear of the vehicle. Consult your owner's manual for specific recommendations. NEVER use a rear-facing safety seat in the front passenger seat if the vehicle is equipped with a passenger-side air bag. This could result in death or serious injury. If you must transport a child in the front passenger seat equipped with an airbag, make sure the child is facing the front and the seat is moved back as far as possible.
Be sure the vehicle's seat belt is correctly attached to the seat. If the seat is not correctly attached, the child could be injured during a collision.

Always consult your child restraint device owner's manual for the proper installation, positioning, and usage instructions. If your vehicle comes equipped with a manufacturer's integrated child seat, consult your vehicle owner's manual for proper usage instructions.

Required Safety Features

Florida law requires that your vehicle be equipped with certain safety features. These features must also be in good operating condition. Many of these features we take for granted, but they have been installed by vehicle manufacturers to reduce the risk of injury or death in a vehicular crash.


Lighting
6105a_daytime_running_lights.jpg
Your vehicle must have the following lights:

Bright (high-beam) headlights which show objects 450 feet ahead.
Dimmed (low-beam) headlights which show objects 150 feet ahead.
Two red taillights mounted on the rear, visible from 1,000 feet.
A white light that makes the license plate visible from 50 feet (the plate must be kept clean).
Two red stoplights. They must be seen from 300 feet in the daytime, and must come on when the foot brake is pressed.

All vehicles, including animal-drawn vehicles, must have at least one white light visible from a distance of not less than 1,000 feet to the front. The vehicle must also have two red lights visible from a distance of not less than 1,000 feet to the rear, or one red light visible to the rear for a distance of 1,000 feet and two red reflectors visible from all distances from 600 feet to 1,000 feet (FS 316.229, FS 316.221, FS 316.400, FS 316.226).


Night Driving

You will need to drive with extra caution at night. You cannot see as far ahead or to the side, and glare from oncoming vehicles can reduce your vision even more. Follow these guidelines for driving at night:

Use your headlights (low-beam or high-beam) between the hours of sunset and sunrise.
Low-beam headlamps are only effective for speeds up to 20-25 mph. You must use special vehicle care when driving faster than these speeds. Unless the road is illuminated with street lighting, you will only be able to see as far as the light provided by your headlights. Drive at speeds slow enough to be able to stop or avoid hazards such as pedestrians and bicyclists as they emerge from the darkness ahead.
High-beam headlights can reveal objects up to a distance of at least 450 feet and are most effective for speeds faster than 25 mph.
Don't use high-beam headlights within 500 feet of oncoming vehicles.
Use low-beam headlights when you are within 300 feet of a vehicle ahead.
When leaving a brightly lit place, drive slowly until your eyes adjust to the darkness.
If a vehicle comes toward you with high-beams, flash your lights to high-beam and back to low-beam once.
Don't look directly at oncoming headlights. Instead, watch the right edge of your lane. Look quickly to be sure of the other vehicle's position every few seconds.
Drive as far to the right as you can if a vehicle with one light comes toward you (FS 316.217, FS 316.238).

6105c_fog_neighborhood.jpgFog or Smoke

It is best not to drive in fog or smoke. If you must, slow down, turn on your low-beam headlights, and be ready for a fast stop. Use windshield wipers in heavy fog. If the fog or smoke becomes so thick that you cannot see well enough to keep driving, pull all the way off the pavement and stop. Turn on your emergency flashers.


Rain

The first few drops of rain mean danger. Roads are most slippery just after the rain begins because oil dropped from vehicles has not been washed away. Slow down and plan for at least two times the normal stopping distance.

In a heavy rain, your tires can ride on a thin film of water, like skis. This is called hydroplaning. When your tires are not touching the road, you can easily lose control and skid. Keep your tires on the road by slowing down when it rains, and by having tires with the right air pressure and good tread.


Reduced Visibility

You must turn on your low-beam (dim) headlights when driving between sunset and sunrise, including the twilight hours between sunset and sunrise or between full night and sunrise. You must also use these lights during any rain, smoke, or fog.

Other Florida Equipment Standards

6106a_no_vis.jpg

Horn: Your vehicle must have a horn which can be heard from a distance of 200 feet (FS 316.271).
Windshield Wiper: Your vehicle must have a windshield wiper in good working order for cleaning rain, snow, or other moisture from the windshield.
Windshield: Must be safety glass and may not be covered or treated with any material which has the effect of making the windshield reflective or in any way non-transparent. It must be free of any stickers not required by law (FS 316.2952).
Side windows: May not be composed of, covered by, or treated with any material which has a highly reflective or mirrored appearance and reflects more than 35% of the light.
Rear windows: When the rear window is composed of, covered by, or treated with any material which makes the rear window non-transparent, the vehicle must be equipped with side mirrors on both sides.
Directional signals: You must have electrical turn signals if your vehicle measures more than 24 inches from the center of the top of the steering post to the left outside limit of the body, or when the distance from the steering post to the rear of the body or load is greater than 14 feet (FS 316.156).
Tires: Your tires should have visible tread of at least 2/32 of an inch across the base with no worn spots showing the ply. Smooth tires on wet roads contribute to thousands of serious crashes.
Mirrors: Your vehicle must have at least one rear-view mirror which gives a view of the highway at least 200 feet to the rear (FS 316.294).
Brakes: Check to see that the pedal stays well above the floor when you step on it. If the vehicle pulls to one side when you use the brakes or you hear any scraping or squealing noises, your brakes may need to be repaired.
Lights: Replace burned-out bulbs and clean lenses often. Dirty headlights can cut your night vision in half. Burned out signal lights or brake lights mean you can’t tell other drivers what you are doing. Keep your lights adjusted so that you don’t blind oncoming drivers.
Windows and Windshield: Keep the glass clean, inside and out, to reduce glare.

Keep your vehicle in good condition. No matter how well you drive, you are not safe unless your vehicle is in good condition. If it is not, you could have a serious crash.



Equipment Not Permitted

The following are illegal to have on or in your vehicle:

Red or blue emergency lights. These are for emergency and law enforcement vehicles only (FS 316.2397).
A siren, bell, or whistle (FS 316.271).
A very loud muffler or one that lets out smoke (FS 316.272).
Signs, posters, or stickers on the windshield or windows, except those required by law (FS 316.2004).
A television which the driver can see (FS 316.303).
More than two spotlights, cowl or fender lights, fog lights (in front), or other extra lights (in front) (FS 316.235).
Headsets worn by driver while operating a vehicle (FS 316.304).
The Braking System

The purpose of your vehicle's braking system is to provide you with the ability to slow or stop your vehicle.

Your vehicle may have standard or power brakes as well as parking brakes. Power brakes require less effort to operate than standard brakes, but they do not change the distance needed to stop your vehicle. Parking brakes keep your vehicle in place while it is parked and can be used in emergency situations when your normal brakes fail.


Required Brake System

Every motor vehicle must be equipped with a service brake system and every motor vehicle, other than a motorcycle, must be equipped with a parking brake system. Both the service brake and the parking brake must be separately applied.

If the two systems are connected in any way, they must be constructed so that failure of any one part, except failure in the drums, brake shoes, or other mechanical parts of the wheel brake assemblies, will not leave the motor vehicle without operative brakes.


Standard Versus Anti-Lock brakes (ABS)

When standard, non-ABS brakes are applied too hard, the wheels "lock" or skid, thus inhibiting directional control of the vehicle. ABS allows the driver to steer during hard braking, which in turn facilitates overall control of the vehicle. In the past, drivers had to know how to "pump" the brakes, or be able to sense the lock-up and release foot pressure in order to prevent skidding. This meant that if only one wheel lost traction and started to slip, the driver would have to reduce braking force to prevent a skid. The advantage of ABS is that the brakes on the wheels with good traction can be fully used, even if the other wheels should lose traction.


How to Use ABS

Experts believe that ABS is a good safety option, but most people are unfamiliar with its usage. It's important to remember the following when braking with ABS:

Apply steady pressure to the brake pedal at all times - don't let up!
The pulsating of the brake pedal as you hold it down indicates that the brakes are working.
Continue to apply the same level of pressure until the vehicle comes to a stop.
It is both incorrect and dangerous to pump anti-lock brakes.

Brakes often become wet after driving through deep water or driving in heavy rain. They may pull to one side or the other, or they may not hold at all. If this happens, slow down and gently push on the brake pedal until your brakes are working again.


Brake Maintenance

It is critical that you properly maintain your brakes. They are important communication and safety tools. Take the necessary precautionary measures to ensure that your brakes are functioning properly. If you notice that your brakes are getting worse, take your vehicle to a mechanic as soon as possible for an inspection. If repairs are needed, have them performed immediately.


Braking Distance

You must be able to stop your vehicle within the distance shown in the graph when you use the foot brake. For the safest driving, keep your brakes in such good condition that you can stop before these distances.

It is important to note that the graph illustrates the braking distance AFTER YOU HAVE APPLIED YOUR BRAKES. You must add a REACTION DISTANCE to this, which is the distance you travel from seeing the danger to putting your foot on the brake pedal. Since 3/4 of a second is the average reaction time, a motorist will travel 11 feet for each 10 mph of speed before hitting the brake. At 50 mph this distance would be 55 feet!

NOTE: Reaction times in laboratories are 3/4 of a second. In the driving environment, your reaction time would be closer to 1.5 seconds and the distance you would travel at 50 mph would be 110 feet.


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Dark Salmon, Coral


For vain is all the toil and trouble
Vain is all the heartbreak
In the end I'll find my solace
In an earthen cradle

So good night
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Inbō Sake
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Re: Niggle Shit Part 2

Post by Inbō Sake on Sat Nov 05, 2011 10:04 pm

Review

Safety belts are one of the most important safety features in your vehicle. They prevent or reduce injuries and fatalities by restraining you in your vehicle or preventing you from being thrown from your vehicle.

Florida law requires you and your passengers to be properly restrained when the vehicle is in motion. Proper positioning of head restraint can dramatically reduce neck injuries.

Air bags are usually located in the steering wheel and the dashboard, but may also be found in side door compartments of some vehicles. They are designed to inflate instantly when an impact occurs over a certain speed and, when used in conjunction with a safety belt, can provide the driver and passengers of a vehicle with much better protection against serious injury or death from a collision.

Air bags, while an efficient safety device, can be dangerous or fatal under certain circumstances. Adults should not sit closer than 10 inches from the steering wheel.

Small children and infants should NEVER ride in rear-facing vehicle carriers in a front passenger seat equipped with an air bag. If a child over one year old must ride in the front seat with a passenger side air bag, put the child in a front-facing child safety seat, a booster seat, or a correct fitting lap/shoulder belt and move the seat as far back as possible.

Review and remember the specifics and importance of Florida child passenger safety laws.

Florida law requires certain safety features on your vehicle. These features must also be in good operating condition: 6108b_no_vis.jpg

Lighting
Horn
Windshield wipers
Side windows
Rear windows
Directional signals
Tires
Mirrors
Brakes

Keep your vehicle in good condition. No matter how well you drive, you are not safe unless your vehicle is in good condition. If it is not, you could have a serious crash.

Vehicle Maintenance


Introduction

All vehicles can break down - you see it every day along the side of the highway. A breakdown cannot only be costly; it can be extremely dangerous and put you in harm's way. Your vehicle is not just your transportation; it can be your protection from weather and other dangerous elements.

Regular vehicle maintenance and vehicle inspections can prevent breakdowns. Learning about maintaining your vehicle will give you confidence to handle problems as they occur.

Your vehicle's systems include engine, fuel, exhaust, steering, braking, tires, electrical, and lubrication systems. Common vehicle maintenance failures include brake, tire, and wiper failure. Each system requires care. Regular servicing will reduce the problems associated with system failures.

Learning Objectives

This module is about vehicle maintenance and how you can help prevent vehicle failure. The topics that will be covered include:

Routine Checks
Maintenance Before and During driving
Fuel Stops
Mileage-based Maintenance
Choosing a mechanic

Routine Checks

All of the different systems in your vehicle require maintenance. Some maintenance is required frequently and other checks are routine inspections. The idea is NOT BREAK DOWN because of system failure - maintenance is conducted to prevent moving and non-moving vehicle failure. Neither experience is safe and both will cost you time and expense. In addition to these routine maintenance recommendations, consult your owner's manual for a specific list recommended for your vehicle.

Weekly Checks:

Tire pressure (reference your owner's manual for the ideal pressure)
Tire tread condition (replace a tire if it has tread wear bars showing bald spots, cuts, embedded stones or metal fragments, or uneven wear on the inside or outside of the tire tread)
Check for leaking fluid

Monthly Checks:

Interior and exterior lights
Engine oil level
Brake fluid level and disc pads
Engine coolant level

Every Six Months Check:

Safety warning lamps
Steering and suspension alignment, shock absorbers, and gear box
Windshield wiper fluid level
Brake fluid level and disc pads
Engine coolant level

Mileage-based Maintenance: Every 15,000 miles

Check automatic transmission fluid level
Inspect brake system
Inspect hoses
Replace fuel filter

Mileage-based Maintenance: Every 30,000 miles

Conduct the 15,000 mile checks
Inspect exhaust system
Replace spark plugs
Replace engine air filter
Inspect accessory drive belts
Service automatic transmission
Check battery

Maintenance Before and During Driving

Before Driving

Before driving, make a habit of checking your vehicle for any changes in its condition.

Notice the tire inflation. Look for low inflation or flat tires. Do not change your tire if you are not experienced or comfortable with the procedure. Clean the windows and exterior lights if they are dirty. Check wipers, horn, lights, and gauges. If your wipers do not work or require replacement, do not drive in inclement weather until they are repaired.

After starting the engine, check:

Instruments - Ensure warning lights are off.
Fuel gauge - If it is less than half empty, plan to refuel soon.
Brake action - Push down on your brake pedal. If you feel no resistance, there is a breakdown of hydraulic pressure in the brake line. This indicates a possible brake failure. DO NOT attempt to drive. Obtain a professional towing service and have the system repaired before driving.

If the engine does not start, or if it doesn't sound normal, obtain the services of a professional mechanic. DO NOT attempt to jump start your vehicle if you are not familiar with the procedure and have not read the owner's manual for the specific procedures required for your vehicle.

As you begin to drive, check:

Brake response - The pedal should stay 3"-4" from the floor and feel firm, not spongy.

While driving:

Check instrument panel - Note warning lights
Listen for unusual noises or irregular sounds
Note vibrations and unusual smells

These indications are warning you that your vehicle is experiencing possible system failure. Schedule maintenance and do not drive until the problem is fixed.

Leaking Fluids and Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Leaking Fluids

As you approach the vehicle, look underneath and around it for any leaking fluids. Color indicates the type of fluid leaking out.

Red: Transmission fluid - check transmission seals
Purple: Power steering fluid - check system
Black: Motor oil - check the engine and replace the oil
Green/Pink/Orange/Red: Coolant - check the water pump
Clear: Water - usually normal condensation or water from the air conditioner

Carbon Monoxide

Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas that is odorless and colorless, which means it can kill you before you are even aware you are being exposed to it. Symptoms of exposure to carbon monoxide include headaches, dizziness, disorientation, nausea, and fatigue, and are often mistaken for the flu. Your car produces carbon monoxide when running idle, and the carbon monoxide can build up to deadly levels in enclosed spaces.

To prevent carbon monoxide poisoning from your vehicle:

Never leave your car running for a long period in enclosed spaces (this includes garages)
Do routine checks on your vehicle to make sure your vehicle is running properly
Repair any exhaust system leaks

Fuel Stops

Gasoline has octane ratings, which are displayed on the fuel pump. Use fuel with the octane rating recommended by your vehicle manufacturer. Using an octane rated higher than your vehicle requires does not increase power or fuel economy. To fuel your vehicle, pull up to the pump on the side where your gas cap is located. NEVER SMOKE around the fuel pump. Operating instructions are displayed on or near the pump.

Choosing a Mechanic

Select your mechanic before you experience vehicle failure.

New car dealers and repair shops display certificates and approvals earned by mechanics who pass specialized repair courses. Sometimes only your car dealer has the approvals, equipment, and diagnostics required to service today's sophisticated "systems."

Consult with family or friends to locate an experienced and reliable mechanic who will guarantee their work. Visit the shop on a Saturday when customers are waiting for their vehicles to be repaired. Inquire about the service and customer service that current customers are experiencing.

Make sure the mechanic(s) are ASE Certified. The National institute for Automotive Service Excellence is a professional certification testing organization for mechanics. Most service shops will not hire mechanics who are not certified by the ASE. Mechanics who pass the certification test demonstrate their knowledge and professionalism, and are therefore more reliable (on paper, at least) than those who do not become ASE Certified. You can find ASE-approved auto repair shops in your area by visiting the ASE web site.

Ensure your repair facility has the manufacturer's approval to maintain your vehicle. Before you have work done on your vehicle, ask for a detailed estimate. Shop around - eliminate the highest and lowest estimate. The estimate should list the service, the parts, and labor as separate line items. Do not authorize any work to be done that you have not approved on the estimate. If parts are replaced, request the replaced parts be returned to you when you pick up your vehicle. Keep copies of all service and maintenance records related to your vehicle.

¯¯¯¯Signature¯¯¯¯
Dark Salmon, Coral


For vain is all the toil and trouble
Vain is all the heartbreak
In the end I'll find my solace
In an earthen cradle

So good night
avatar
Inbō Sake
Missing-Nin

Posts : 178
Reputation : 1
Join date : 2010-06-05
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Re: Niggle Shit Part 2

Post by Inbō Sake on Sat Nov 05, 2011 10:46 pm

Review

All of the different systems in your vehicle require maintenance. Some maintenance or inspections are required frequently and other checks are based on miles driven.

Weekly - Check tire pressure and tread for wear or damages.
Monthly - Check lights, tires, and fluid levels.
Every six months - Check lamps, fluids, connections, belts, wipers.
Before driving - Check the instrument panel. Make a habit of checking your vehicle for any changes in its condition. As you approach the vehicle, look underneath and around it for any leaking fluids.
After starting the engine - Check instruments, gauges, and brake action. If the engine does not start, or if it doesn't sound normal, obtain the services of a professional mechanic.
While driving - Notice vibrations and listen for unusual noises or irregular sounds and smells.

Miles traveled = wear and tear on your vehicle, which requires maintenance.

Approximately every 3,000 - 5,000 miles - Change the oil and oil filter, rotate tires, and lubricate the chassis.
Approximately every 15,000 and 30,000 miles - Conduct maintenance as recommended in your owner's manual.

Use fuel with the octane rating recommended by your vehicle manufacturer. Operating instructions are displayed on or near the pump. NEVER SMOKE around the fuel pump.

Select your mechanic before you experience vehicle failure. Ensure your repair facility has the manufacturer's approval to maintain your vehicle. Before you have work done on your vehicle, ask for a detailed estimate. Do not authorize any work to be done that you have not approved on the estimate. If parts are replaced, request the replaced parts be returned to you when you pick up your vehicle. Always keep copies of all service and maintenance records related to your vehicle.

Signs, Signals, and Markings


Introduction

The Highway Transportation System (HTS) uses traffic control devices to visually communicate messages to drivers using signs, signals, and road markings. Traffic controls are necessary to ensure orderly, predictable movement of traffic.

Transportation professionals create traffic rules and regulations with careful consideration related to driver capabilities, roadway structure, and vehicle crash history.

Traffic controls in the state of Florida serve several purposes. Signs, signals, and markings warn you of changing road conditions, tell you what to do, and help guide your way.

To operate safely in the highway transportation system, all drivers must know, recognize, and obey the rules-of-the-road.

Responding appropriately to traffic signs and signals is a key factor in reducing driver risk. Be aware of new signs and signals and adjust to changing traffic patterns and roadways design.

Learning Objectives

This module introduces you to the benefits of obeying signs, signals, and markings. The topics that will be covered include:

Signs
Signals
Markings
Additional Pavement Markings
Railroad Crossings

Signs

There is a national standard for signage, which uses symbols designed for quick and easy understanding; they utilize uniform colors and shapes so you can quickly interpret their meaning.

There are three categories of signs:

Warning
Regulatory
Guide

Signs also have specific colors and special shapes associated with their meanings. Signs are designed specifically for drivers to see and quickly recognize their messages and meanings.


Warning Signs

Warning signs "warn" drivers of road and traffic conditions and communicate hazards that lie ahead. Warning signs are diamond-shaped and usually yellow. Warning signs communicate danger and are read from the top to the bottom. Be prepared to slow or stop when you see a warning sign.
6203b_warn_signs.jpg
Warning signs do not tell you what to do, they warn you of approaching or potential danger. Warning signs with a speed posted on them indicate a reduction of speed may be necessary. These speeds are determined to be the safest speed to travel in good conditions. Do not assume you can safely travel faster than the sign indicates.


Construction Signs
6203c_const_signs.jpg
Orange, diamond-shaped, or rectangular signs alert drivers of construction zones. Be ready to slow, stop, or drive around equipment and workers. Travel though construction zones carefully and follow the directions received from the construction workers. Be cautious about your position in the lane. Often construction zones have no shoulder or extra space in which you can maneuver.


Regulatory Signs

Regulatory signs communicate laws all drivers must understand and obey. Regulatory signs are usually red, black, or red on white. Stop signs and yield signs are regulatory signs that were given unique and distinctive shapes.
6203d_reg_signs.jpg
Stop signs are octagonal. They are red with white letters and a white border. Stop signs are located on roads that cross a through street. Always come to a full and complete stop at a stop sign. A full stop means that you stop forward motion. If there is a white stop line painted on the road, stop behind the line. If there is no white stop line, stop before entering the intersection. When you have stopped, yield the right-of-way to pedestrians or other vehicles that are approaching or already in the intersection.

Yield signs are red and white inverted triangles. Yield signs are located where roads cross or merge. To yield means to allow others to use the intersection before you enter. The right-of-way means you accept the privilege of the roadway. To yield the right-of-way means you give the privilege of the roadway to another road user, such as allowing a pedestrian to use the road or allowing traffic approaching the intersection to continue without your vehicle interfering with their speed or path. When you approach a yield sign, you are not required to stop - you are required to yield, slow down, and always be prepared to stop. Proceed only when there is no traffic in the lane you are about to enter.

If you are given a yield sign or stop sign but another driver has to slow down or stop when you enter the intersection, you have not successfully yielded the right-of-way.

Other regulatory signs include speed limit signs, turning restrictions, lane use, and parking restrictions.


Guide Signs

Guide signs provide information about routes, exits, location, distances, points of interest, and services.
6203e_guide_signs.jpg
Route markers are posted on local, U.S., and interstate routes. Interstate route signs are red, white, and blue shields. Route signs vary according to the type of roadway. State and county signs vary from state to state. Route signs have the road number posted on them. Other guide signs include destination and mileage signs, roadside service signs, and signs that direct you to recreational areas. Service signs are blue. Recreational signs are brown.

Shapes also provide you with critical driving information. For example:

A STOP sign is an octagon.
A YIELD sign is a triangle.
A railroad crossing sign is round.
A regulatory sign is a vertical rectangle.
A school sign is a pentagon.
A NO PASSING sign is pennant-shaped.
A warning sign is diamond-shaped.
Information and guide signs are horizontal rectangles.

Signals 6204a_signals_busy_inter.jpg

Every time vehicles travel in opposing directions and at different speeds, the potential for a crash exists. Traffic engineers use signals in combination with signs and markings to help control busy intersections. Signals are bright and are easier to see both day and night. They are positioned so they can be seen above and to the side of traffic flow. Signals sometimes are the only traffic controls that the driver can see because of darkness, weather, or glare.

Signals have lights with colors that have distinct and consistent meanings. Understand what each signal color means and always obey the signal, it is the law. When lights are not working, drivers should stop and follow the procedures used at an intersection controlled by a four-way stop.


Red Light
6204b_signals_urban_redlights.jpg
A red signal light means STOP. You must come to a full stop. A right turn can be made against a red light after you stop and yield to pedestrians and vehicles in your path. DO NOT turn if there is a sign posted for NO TURN ON RED. The fine for a red light violation is $158.


Yellow Light

A yellow signal light warns you that the red signal is about to appear. When you see the yellow light, you should stop, if you can do so safely. If you can’t stop, look out for vehicles that may enter the intersection when the light changes. Recognize that it is illegal to enter an intersection after the signal turns red.


Green Light

A green signal light means GO, but first you must let any vehicles, bicycles, or pedestrians remaining in the intersection clear the intersection before you move ahead. Make a left turn only if you have enough space to complete the turn before any oncoming vehicle, bicycle, or pedestrian becomes a hazard.
6204c_zoom-_in-_on-red_arrow.jpg

Red Arrow

A red arrow means STOP until the green signal or green arrow appears. A turn may not be made against a red arrow.


Yellow Arrow

A yellow arrow means come to a complete stop if you can do so safely. Be prepared to obey the next signal that could be the green or red light or the red arrow.


Green Arrow

A green arrow means GO, but first you must let any vehicles, bicycles, or pedestrians remaining in the intersection when your signal changes to green get through before you move ahead. Make the left turn only if you have enough space to complete the turn before any oncoming vehicle, bicycle, or pedestrian becomes a hazard.


Flashing Red

A flashing red signal light means exactly the same as a STOP sign: namely, STOP! After stopping, proceed when safe, observing the right-of-way rules.


Flashing Yellow

A flashing yellow signal light warns you to be careful. Slow down and be especially alert.


Lane Signals

Overhead lane-use signals tell you if it is clear for you to use the lane or whether the lane is open to oncoming traffic only.

Reversible lanes allow traffic on crowded roadways to go in one direction at certain times of day and in the opposite direction at other times of day.

6204d_zoom-_in-_on-green-arrows.jpg
Green Arrow

You may drive in the lane indicated when a green arrow is pointed downward.


Yellow X

As soon as you can do so safely, move over into a lane with a downward-pointing green arrow.


Flashing Yellow X

You can make a left turn at the intersection where the signal is located.


Red X

Stay out of this lane. It is open to oncoming traffic.


Intersection Safety

Drivers run red lights frequently. The most dangerous time to enter an intersection is immediately after the light has turned green - other drivers might be trying to “beat the yellow light.” Do not enter an intersection, even when the light is green, unless there is enough space to completely cross before the light turns red. If heavy traffic causes you to block traffic, you can be cited.

When you enter an intersection, scan for traffic controls, prohibitive signs, and potential hazards. If the light is yellow at a controlled intersection, stop safely before entering the intersection. If you are already in the intersection and cannot stop safely, proceed through at a constant speed and watch carefully for cross traffic.

Controlled intersections use some form of:

Signal lights
Flashing signal lights
Circular arrows
Right-turn-on-red signals
Designated lanes

Additional Pavement Markings


Bike Lanes

A bicycle lane is shown by a solid white line along either side of the street, four or more feet from the curb. The words “BIKE LANE” are painted at various locations in this lane. Near a corner, this line will usually be a broken line. Motor vehicles are permitted to enter the bike lane only where the line is broken and only in order to make a right turn. Roadways with bike lanes may also have green “BIKE ROUTE” or white “BIKE LANE” signs posted.


Large Broken Lines on the Freeway and City Streets

Lanes that are ending will usually be marked by large broken lines painted on the pavement.


Obstructions

These are white pavement markings that indicate an upcoming obstruction, such as a bump or dip.

6206c_stopbar_crosswalk.jpg
Stop Lines

Stop lines or “stop bars” are solid white lines stretching across one or more lanes in the same direction, indicating the proper place to come to a stop at an intersection. Stop before your front bumper crosses this line.


Crosswalk Markings

Every intersection where streets with sidewalks meet “at about right angles” has a crosswalk for pedestrians to cross the street even though there may be no painted lines. Crosswalks are that part of the pavement where the sidewalk lines would extend across the street and are areas set aside for people to cross. They are often marked with white lines. Yellow crosswalk lines may be painted at school crossings. If you stop at an intersection, always stay clear of these crosswalks, stopping before your front bumper enters the path.


School Warning Markings

These white or yellow pavement markings read SCHOOL ZONE and indicate that you are approaching a school zone and should reduce your speed accordingly.

6206e_bus_kids_pouring_out.jpg
School Buses

When driving on a two-way street or highway, vehicles moving in either direction must stop for a school bus with red flashing lights. When yellow lights are flashing, prepare to stop because children are preparing to leave the bus. When red lights are flashing, stop, and remain stopped as long as the lights are flashing, since children will be crossing to or from the bus.

You need not stop when driving on a divided highway in the opposite direction of a school bus displaying flashing lights if there is an unpaved space at least five feet wide, a raised median, or a physical barrier. Remember, if you are driving in the same direction as the school bus, you must stop for flashing lights even on divided highways (FS 316.172).

As per Florida statutes, passing a stopped school bus with flashing lights will result in a $100 violation. For a second or subsequent offense within a period of five years, the Department shall suspend the driver license of the person for not less than 90 days and not more than six months. If a motorist passes a stopped bus with flashing lights on the side where children board or get off the bus, the fine doubles and the suspension increases to not less than 180 days and not more than one year. There will be an additional $65 fine that goes to the Department of Revenue for deposit into the Administrative Trust Fund of the Department of Health to be used for trauma payments (FS 316.172; 318.18; 322.27).

Railroad Crossings

Railroad crossings are one of the deadliest types of intersections. If a train is entering the railroad crossing, it always has the right-of-way. Railroad intersections have crossbuck signs posted, but not all are controlled with signals and gates.

Most collisions are the result of human error. People do not obey the warning signals, they try to outrun the train, or they ignore the crossing barriers. Never try to judge a train’s speed or distance. Expect a train on any track in any direction at any time.

Controls at railroad crossings include:

Warning signs
Crossing gates
Signals
Flashing lights
White pavement roadway markings

Guidelines to Rail-Crossing Safety:

Obey any controls at the crossing; if there are no controls, look and listen to the left, to the right, and back to the left again.
If a train is approaching, stop far away from the tracks (within 50 feet, but not less than 15 feet).
Proceed with caution after the train has passed; there may be another train coming.

Review
6208a_road_intersection_busy.jpg
Traffic controls are necessary to ensure the orderly, predictable movement of traffic. Traffic controls in the state of Florida serve several purposes. Signs, signals, and markings warn you of changing road conditions, tell you what to do, and help guide your way. To operate safely in the highway transportation system, all drivers must know, recognize, and obey the rules-of-the-road.

There is a national standard for signage, which uses symbols designed for quick and easy understanding; they utilize uniform colors and shapes so you can quickly interpret their meaning.

There are three categories of signs:

Warning
Regulatory
Guide

Warning signs “warn” drivers of road and traffic conditions and communicate hazards that lie ahead. Warning signs are diamond-shaped and usually yellow. Warning signs communicate danger and are read from the top to the bottom. Be prepared to slow or stop when you see a warning sign.
6208b_zoom-_in--on-advanced_warning_signs.jpg
Orange, diamond-shaped, or rectangular signs alert drivers of construction zones. Be ready to slow, stop, or drive around equipment and workers.

Regulatory signs communicate laws all drivers must understand and obey. Regulatory signs are usually red, black, or red on white. Stop signs and yield signs are regulatory signs that were given unique and distinctive shapes.

Guide signs provide information about routes, exits, location, distances, points of interest, and services.

Traffic engineers use signals in combination with signs and markings to help control busy intersections.

Signals have lights with colors that have distinct and consistent meanings. Understand what each signal color means and always obey the signal; it is the law. When lights are not working, drivers should stop and follow the procedures used at an intersection controlled by a four-way stop.
6208c_redlight_runner.jpg
Drivers run red lights frequently. The most dangerous time to enter an intersection is immediately after the light has turned green; other drivers might be trying to “beat the yellow light.” Do not enter an intersection, even when the light is green, unless there is enough space to completely cross before the light turns red. If heavy traffic causes you to block traffic, you can be cited.

Markings communicate the law and are painted on the road for your safety and to regulate the flow of traffic.

The following types of yellow lines tell you whether passing is allowed:

Broken line - passing is allowed if there are no oncoming cars.
Solid line next to broken line - passing is allowed if there are no oncoming cars and you are next to the broken line. Passing is not allowed if you are next to the solid line.
Double solid lines on two-lane roadways - no passing is allowed.
Double solid lines on four-lane roadways - no passing is allowed.

Solid white lines should never be crossed. Lanes that are ending will usually be marked by large broken lines painted on the pavement. Every intersection where streets with sidewalks meet “at about right angles” has a crosswalk for pedestrians to cross the street even though there may be no painted lines.

Stop before your front bumper crosses the “stop bar” at an intersection.

Crosswalks are often marked with white lines. Yellow crosswalk lines may be painted at school crossings. If you stop at an intersection, always stay clear of these crosswalks, stopping before your front bumper enters the path. Always yield the right-of-way to pedestrians.

School Warning Markings are white or yellow pavement markings that read SCHOOL ZONE and indicate that you are approaching a school zone and should reduce your speed accordingly.

If you are driving in the same direction as the school bus, you must stop if the red lights are flashing. In Florida, passing a stopped school bus with flashing lights will result in a 4 point violation. In addition to the points, the court shall impose a minimum civil penalty of $100 (FS 316.172; 318.18; 322.27).

Railroad crossings are one of the deadliest types of intersections. If a train is entering the railroad crossing, it always has the right-of-way. Railroad intersections have crossbuck signs posted but not all are controlled with signals and gates. Expect a train on any track in any direction at any time.


¯¯¯¯Signature¯¯¯¯
Dark Salmon, Coral


For vain is all the toil and trouble
Vain is all the heartbreak
In the end I'll find my solace
In an earthen cradle

So good night
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Inbō Sake
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Re: Niggle Shit Part 2

Post by Inbō Sake on Sat Nov 05, 2011 11:05 pm

Speed Laws and Right-of-Way


Introduction

In this module you will learn about the speed laws and the rules for yielding the right-of-way in the State of Florida.

Some of the other subjects covered will be the Florida speed laws and speed laws for specifically designated areas.

You need to be prepared to know what to do when you share the roadway with other users. There are specific laws to follow when your driving environment includes:

Emergency vehicles
School buses
Funeral processions
Public transit
Open intersections
Roundabouts
Pedestrians
Bicyclists
Blind persons
Mobility-impaired persons

Introduction

This module introduces you to speed laws and right-of-way laws. The topics that will be covered include:

Florida Speed Laws
Intersection Right-of-Way - Stop Signs, Open Intersections, Roundabouts
Emergency Vehicles
Other Vehicles - School Buses, Public Transit, Funeral Processions, Driveways
Pedestrians and Bicyclists

Florida Speed Laws

Basic speed laws exist to remind drivers that they must never drive faster than is safe for the present conditions, regardless of the posted speed limit. No matter what the speed limit sign may say, your speed should depend on the following factors: 6303a_bad_conditions.jpg

The number and the speed of the other cars traveling on the road with you.
The condition of the road surface: smooth, rough, graveled, wet, dry, wide, or narrow.
The presence of bicyclists or pedestrians walking along the edge of the road.
The presence and amount of rain, fog, snow, ice, wind, or dust in the air.

Be careful, since it may actually be illegal to drive at the posted speed limit if weather, visibility, traffic, and roadway surface conditions adversely affect the driving environment.

The minimum speed laws exist to prevent you from traveling at such slow speeds that they block the normal and reasonable flow of traffic. The minimum speed limit on all highways that are four lanes or more is 40 mph. If the posted speed limit is 70 mph, the minimum speed limit is 50 mph (FS 316.183).

Unless otherwise posted, the following are the maximum speed limits for certain designated areas in Florida:

30 mph in municipal speed areas
30 mph in business or residential areas
70 mph on rural interstate highways (limits may be changed on other multi-lane highways and in areas where the conditions require lower speeds)
70 mph on limited access highways
55 mph on all other roads and highways
20 mph in school zones (FS 316.183, FS 316.187, FS 316.189, FS 316.1895)

You must observe and obey the posted speed signs. You may encounter frequent changes from area to area along the roads or highways. In special traffic lanes and construction zones, observe the signs for different posted speed limits.

Be aware that Florida laws stipulate that if you are cited for exceeding the speed limit by up to five mph in a legally posted school zone, you will be fined $50.

If you further exceed the speed limit in a school zone, you will pay a fine double the amount of normal fines for speeding. Fines for speeding in a construction zone where workers are present or operating equipment are double that of regular speeding penalties (FS 318.18).

Intersection Right-of-Way


Right-of-Way
6304a_kid_bike_street.jpg
Who has the right-of-way in Florida? The answer is no one! The law only says who must yield (give up) the right-of-way. Every driver, motorcyclist, moped rider, bicyclist, and pedestrian must do everything possible to avoid a crash.


Stop Signs

You must yield the right-of-way to all other traffic and pedestrians at stop signs. You are allowed to move forward only when the road is clear. At four-way stops, the first vehicle to stop should move forward first. If two vehicles reach the intersection at the same time, the driver on the left yields to the driver on the right.


Open Intersections

An open intersection is defined as one without traffic control signs or signals. When you enter one, you must yield the right-of-way if a vehicle is already in the intersection. You must yield the right-of-way if you enter or cross a state highway from a secondary road. You must yield the right-of-way if you enter a paved road from an unpaved road. You must yield the right-of-way if you plan to make a left turn and a vehicle is approaching from the opposite direction.


Roundabouts

A roundabout is a type of intersection that is unfamiliar to many drivers, yet more and more communities in Florida are using them. Roundabouts improve traffic flow and reduce the likelihood of traffic crashes. Most roundabouts do not require stopping, allowing vehicles to move continuously through intersections at the same low speed. Roundabouts are designed to move all traffic through in a counterclockwise direction. Vehicles approaching the roundabout yield to the circulating traffic in the roundabout, however, you must obey all signs to determine the correct right-of-way in the roundabout.

Emergency Vehicles

As a pedestrian or as a driver, you must yield the right-of-way to law enforcement cars, fire engines, and other emergency vehicles using sirens and/or flashing lights. Pull over to the closest edge of the roadway immediately and stop to allow the emergency vehicle to pass. Do not block intersections.


Move Over Law

When you are driving on an interstate highway or other highway with two or more lanes and are traveling in the same direction as an emergency vehicle is traveling; and, unless you are directed by a law enforcement officer and the law enforcement or other emergency vehicle is parked on the roadway with their emergency lights activated, you will be required to leave the lane closest to the emergency vehicle, as soon as it is safe to do so.

6405b_police_flasher.jpg Take note that emergency vehicles include wreckers that are displaying their amber rotating flashing lights and performing a recovery or loading on a roadside.

If you are approaching a law enforcement or other authorized emergency vehicle parked on a two-lane roadway with their emergency lights activated, and unless you are directed by a law enforcement officer, you should slow to a speed that is 20 miles per hour less than the posted speed limit when the posted speed limit is 25 miles per hour or greater; or slow to five miles per hour when the posted speed limit is 20 miles per hour or less (FS 316.126).

Other Right-of-Way Laws


6406a_school_bus_stopped.jpg School Buses

If you are on a two-way street or highway, and moving in either direction, you must stop for a stopped school bus which is picking up or dropping off children. You must remain stopped until all children are clear of the roadway and the bus stop signal has stopped. If the highway is divided by a raised barrier or an unpaved median at least five feet wide, you do not have to stop if you are moving in the opposite direction of the bus. Painted lines or pavement markings are not considered barriers. You must always stop if you are moving in the same direction as the bus and you must continue until the bus stop signal has stopped (FS 316.172).


Public Transit

You should yield the right-of-way to a public transit bus traveling in the same direction which has signaled and is re-entering the traffic flow from a specifically designated pullout area.


Funeral Processions

As a pedestrian and driver, you must yield the right-of-way to funeral processions. When the first vehicle in the funeral processions lawfully enters an intersection, the other vehicles in the procession must have their headlights on as a signal to you not to drive between or interfere with the procession while it is in motion unless you are directed to do so by a law enforcement officer.


Driveways

If you enter a road from a driveway, alley, or roadside, you must yield to vehicles already on the main road. You must yield to bicyclists and pedestrians on the sidewalk.

Pedestrians and Bicyclists


Safety Rules for Pedestrians
6407a_ped_in_crosswalk.jpg
If you are a pedestrian, you should look to the left and the right before stepping off any curb. You should cross only at intersections or designated crosswalks.

Drivers are always more alert for pedestrians when they approach intersections. Always cross with the green light or "WALK" signal. Make sure you have enough time to cross. Although the motorist must yield, the motorist may not see you in time.

If you are walking along a highway, always walk on the shoulder on the left side, facing traffic. Try to wear light colored clothing or use a flashlight to make you more visible to drivers at night.


Bicyclists

If you ride a bicycle in Florida, your bicycle is legally defined as a vehicle. If you are riding using a public roadway, you are considered an operator of a motor vehicle and are responsible for observing traffic laws. With few exceptions, there is only one road and it is up to motorists and you to treat each other with care and respect. Adherence to the law is the foundation of respect.


Blind Persons

6407c_handicaped.jpg The primary traveling aids for people who are blind are often whites cane or trained guide dogs. Independent travel for these people involves some risk that can be greatly reduced when you, the driver, are aware of the use and meaning of a white cane or guide dog.

You must always yield the right-of-way to persons who are blind. When you encounter a pedestrian crossing a street or highway guided by a dog or carrying a white cane, (or a white cane with a red tip), you must come to a complete stop.


Mobility-Impaired Persons

You must yield the right-of-way to mobility-impaired persons. When a pedestrian is crossing a public street or highway and the pedestrian is using a walker, a crutch, or an orthopedic cane or wheelchair, you must come to a complete stop.

Review

6408a_rain_school_zone.jpg No matter what the speed limit sign may say, determine the safe speed to travel based on several factors. Be careful since it may actually be illegal to drive at the posted speed limit if weather, visibility, traffic, and roadway surface conditions adversely affect the driving environment.

There are special speeds posted for different areas such as municipal areas, business or residential areas, and rural areas and interstates. You must observe and obey the posted speed signs. If you are cited for exceeding the speed limit by up to five mph in a legally posted school zone, you will be fined $50.00. Fines for speeding in a construction zone where workers are present or operating equipment is double that of regular speeding penalties (FS 318.18).

In Florida, the law only says who must yield (give up) the right-of-way. You must yield the right-of-way to all other traffic and pedestrians at stop signs.

At four-way stops, the first vehicle to stop should move forward first. If two vehicles reach the intersection at the same time, the driver on the left yields to the driver on the right. You must yield the right-of-way if you enter or cross a state highway from a secondary road. You must yield the right-of-way if you enter a paved road from an unpaved road.

Most roundabouts do not require stopping. They are designed to move all traffic through in a counterclockwise direction. Vehicles approaching the roundabout yield to the traffic in the roundabout.

6407a_ped_in_crosswalk.jpg As a pedestrian or as a driver, you must yield the right-of-way to law enforcement cars, fire engines, and other emergency vehicles using sirens and/or flashing lights. Pull over to the closest edge of the roadway immediately and stop to allow the emergency vehicle to pass. Do not block intersections. Emergency vehicles include wreckers that are displaying their amber rotating flashing lights and performing a recovery or loading on a roadside. If you are approaching a law enforcement or other authorized emergency vehicle parked on a two-lane roadway with their emergency lights activated, slow to a speed that is 20 miles per hour less than the posted speed limit when the posted speed limit is 25 miles per hour or greater; or slow to five miles per hour when the posted speed limit is 20 miles per hour or less (FS 316.126).

If you are on a two-way street or highway moving in either direction, you must stop for a stopped school bus which is picking up or dropping off children. If the highway is divided by a raised barrier or an unpaved median at least five feet wide, you do not have to stop if you are moving in the opposite direction of the bus.

Yield the right-of-way to public transit re-entering the traffic flow from a specifically designated pullout area.

As a pedestrian and driver, you must yield the right-of-way to funeral processions unless you are directed otherwise by a law enforcement officer. If you enter a road from a driveway, alley, or roadside, you must yield to vehicles already on the main road.

If you are a pedestrian, you should look to the left and the right before stepping off any curb, and cross only at intersections or designated crosswalks. Always cross with the green light or "WALK" signal. If you are walking along a highway, always walk on the shoulder on the left side, facing traffic.

In Florida, if you ride a bicycle on a public roadway, you are responsible for observing traffic laws. Remember, you must always yield the right-of-way to persons who are blind. You must also yield the right-of-way to mobility-impaired persons.

¯¯¯¯Signature¯¯¯¯
Dark Salmon, Coral


For vain is all the toil and trouble
Vain is all the heartbreak
In the end I'll find my solace
In an earthen cradle

So good night
avatar
Inbō Sake
Missing-Nin

Posts : 178
Reputation : 1
Join date : 2010-06-05
Location : Iwagakure no Sato

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Re: Niggle Shit Part 2

Post by Inbō Sake on Sat Nov 05, 2011 11:34 pm

Review

6408a_rain_school_zone.jpg No matter what the speed limit sign may say, determine the safe speed to travel based on several factors. Be careful since it may actually be illegal to drive at the posted speed limit if weather, visibility, traffic, and roadway surface conditions adversely affect the driving environment.

There are special speeds posted for different areas such as municipal areas, business or residential areas, and rural areas and interstates. You must observe and obey the posted speed signs. If you are cited for exceeding the speed limit by up to five mph in a legally posted school zone, you will be fined $50.00. Fines for speeding in a construction zone where workers are present or operating equipment is double that of regular speeding penalties (FS 318.18).

In Florida, the law only says who must yield (give up) the right-of-way. You must yield the right-of-way to all other traffic and pedestrians at stop signs.

At four-way stops, the first vehicle to stop should move forward first. If two vehicles reach the intersection at the same time, the driver on the left yields to the driver on the right. You must yield the right-of-way if you enter or cross a state highway from a secondary road. You must yield the right-of-way if you enter a paved road from an unpaved road.

Most roundabouts do not require stopping. They are designed to move all traffic through in a counterclockwise direction. Vehicles approaching the roundabout yield to the traffic in the roundabout.

6407a_ped_in_crosswalk.jpg As a pedestrian or as a driver, you must yield the right-of-way to law enforcement cars, fire engines, and other emergency vehicles using sirens and/or flashing lights. Pull over to the closest edge of the roadway immediately and stop to allow the emergency vehicle to pass. Do not block intersections. Emergency vehicles include wreckers that are displaying their amber rotating flashing lights and performing a recovery or loading on a roadside. If you are approaching a law enforcement or other authorized emergency vehicle parked on a two-lane roadway with their emergency lights activated, slow to a speed that is 20 miles per hour less than the posted speed limit when the posted speed limit is 25 miles per hour or greater; or slow to five miles per hour when the posted speed limit is 20 miles per hour or less (FS 316.126).

If you are on a two-way street or highway moving in either direction, you must stop for a stopped school bus which is picking up or dropping off children. If the highway is divided by a raised barrier or an unpaved median at least five feet wide, you do not have to stop if you are moving in the opposite direction of the bus.

Yield the right-of-way to public transit re-entering the traffic flow from a specifically designated pullout area.

As a pedestrian and driver, you must yield the right-of-way to funeral processions unless you are directed otherwise by a law enforcement officer. If you enter a road from a driveway, alley, or roadside, you must yield to vehicles already on the main road.

If you are a pedestrian, you should look to the left and the right before stepping off any curb, and cross only at intersections or designated crosswalks. Always cross with the green light or "WALK" signal. If you are walking along a highway, always walk on the shoulder on the left side, facing traffic.

In Florida, if you ride a bicycle on a public roadway, you are responsible for observing traffic laws. Remember, you must always yield the right-of-way to persons who are blind. You must also yield the right-of-way to mobility-impaired persons.

Introduction

Parking and passing require coordination of many different driving skills combined with a continuous searching process.

There are three types of parking maneuvers.

Angled - when the parking space is at an angle or on a diagonal to the curb.
Perpendicular - when the parking space is perpendicular to the curb, or at a 90-degree angle.
Parallel - when the parking space is parallel to the curb or hugs the edge of the curb.

The decision to pass another vehicle requires good judgment. Often, passing really does not accomplish much. Decide if the pass is legal, possible, worth the risk, and if there is adequate space to pass.

Whenever you are passing or another vehicle is passing you, safety is particularly important to avoid collisions.

Learning Objectives

This module addresses the elements necessary for safe parking and passing. The topics that will be covered include:

Parking
Disabled Parking
Passing Laws
Safe Passing
Safety When Being Passed

Parking

Practice parking in all of the different types of parking spaces in a no-traffic environment before you attempt parking maneuvers with other vehicles present.

Before parking, make sure it is legal to park in the location you have selected.

7103a_parking_side_of_road.jpg Become familiar with where you are not allowed to park. You cannot park:

On the roadway side of another parked vehicle (double parking)
In crosswalks
On sidewalks
In front of driveways
By curbs painted yellow or where "No Parking" signs are posted
Within intersections
Within 15 feet of a fire hydrant
Within 20 feet of an intersection
Within 20 feet of the entrance to a fire, ambulance, or rescue squad station
Within 50 feet of a railroad crossing
On the hard surface of a highway where parking spaces are not marked
On any bridge or overpass or in any tunnel
Within 30 feet of a rural mailbox on a state highway between 8:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m.
Within 30 feet of any flashing signal, stop sign, or traffic signal
In a location where you block or create a hazard for other vehicles (FS 316.1945)

Before selecting your parking space, make sure there is plenty of room to maneuver in and out. Try not to park next to large vehicles or vehicles that are too close to the white space markings.
7103b_straight-In_parkingDSC_0317.jpg
Whenever possible, park where there are no vehicles on either side of your space until you are comfortable with parking maneuvers.

When you are parking on a public road, park as far away from traffic as you possibly can. If there is a roadside shoulder, pull as far onto it as you can. If there is a curb, pull close to it; do not park more than one foot away from the curb.

Always park on the right side of the roadway unless it is a one-way street.

While parking, conduct a continuous search and be aware of the entire driving environment that surrounds you. Conduct the maneuvers slowly. When properly parked, your vehicle should be centered inside the space with no part of the vehicle extending out into the traffic lane.

Always set your parking brake before exiting the parked vehicle. Set the parking brake and shift to park if you have an automatic transmission or reverse if your vehicle has a manual transmission. Turn off the engine, lock the vehicle, and exit with caution.

Florida law requires that you must take the keys out of your vehicle before leaving it. Always check the traffic behind you before getting out, or get out on the curb side.

Before you leave any parked position, look over your shoulder to the rear to make sure the way is clear. Make sure to give the proper turn signal when leaving a curb and yield to other traffic.


Angled Parking

Angled parking places are on a diagonal from the traffic flow. Angled parking is fairly easy.


Entering an Angled Parking Space

When you approach an empty parking space, signal your intentions by activating your turn signal and brake lights. Position the side of your vehicle about five feet from the rear of the parked vehicles. When you can see down the side of the parking space line closest to your vehicle, turn your wheels and slowly enter the space. Continuously check your clearance on the left-front and the right-rear as you slowly enter the space. Keep track of your right rear bumper and be sure you have enough room to clear the vehicle on your right. While you are still moving, center your vehicle and straighten out the wheels.


Exiting an Angled Parking Space

Place your foot on the brake. Release the parking brake and shift gears to REVERSE. Position your body so you can see over your right shoulder while you continuously search for obstacles, pedestrians, and oncoming traffic. When the area behind you is clear and there is a large gap in the traffic lane behind you, slowly back up straight. As you back up, watch where you are going, keep your wheels straight, and continue searching to all sides. Be prepared to brake for traffic moving in your path.

When your vehicle has been backed completely out of the space, or when the front of your vehicle passes the rear bumper of the vehicle to the left, turn the steering wheel to the right and smoothly guide the rear of your vehicle into the traffic lane with your eyes to the rear.

Brake to a stop as you straighten your wheels. With your foot still on the brake, shift into DRIVE. Slowly accelerate to the speed of traffic and re-check traffic to the rear.

Always give the right-of-way to traffic that is already moving in the lane you are trying to enter. Watch for clues that other vehicles are also exiting their spaces.


Perpendicular Parking

Perpendicular parking spaces require turning at a 90-degree angle, so allow yourself plenty of room by waiting to turn until you can see all the way down the stall line.


Entering a Perpendicular Parking Space

Signal your intention as you approach the space. Position your vehicle so you will have plenty of space to turn in. Approach the empty space between the side of your vehicle and the rear of the vehicles already parked. Enter the space slowly and steer your vehicle to the center of the space. Check the back and sides to be sure you are not about to hit the side of another vehicle.

Straighten your wheels and stop when the front of your vehicle is parallel with the front of other vehicles in the lot.


Exiting a Perpendicular Parking Space

Exit the perpendicular parking space using the same procedure as you use exiting an angled parking space.


Parallel Parking

Occasionally you will need to park in a parallel parking space. Many drivers dread this maneuver, but it becomes easy with practice. Many states require a demonstration of this procedure on the driving exam.

Locate a space large enough for this maneuver by identifying a space that is at least one and a half times the length of your vehicle. The space needs to be large enough for you to have a few feet in front and behind your vehicle. This is the space you will use to maneuver in and out of the parking space. Do not begin the maneuver until you are sure the space is large enough.


Entering a Parallel Parking Space

Check traffic to the front and to the rear. Signal your intentions to park by tapping on the brakes and activating your right turn signal. Position the right side of your vehicle parallel to the parked vehicles on the right with about three feet of space between you and the parked vehicles. Stop beside the vehicle parked in front of the space you want to enter.

Back up and turn the steering wheel sharply to the right. Look to the rear. Never try to use your mirrors to see behind you when parallel parking.

Back up very slowly until the center door post of your vehicle is lined up with the back left corner of the vehicle on your right. Straighten your wheels and back slowly down until the right front corner of your vehicle is in line with the left rear corner of the vehicle on your right.

As you stop, turn your steering wheel to the left as far as it will go. Stop about two feet from the vehicle behind you. With your foot still on the brake, change gears into DRIVE. Slowly move forward until your vehicle has equal space between the vehicle in front of you and behind you.


Exiting a Parallel Parking Space

Place your foot on the brake, start the engine, signal your intentions, and shift to REVERSE. Check the traffic to the back and in the lane you are about to enter. Check your blind spot. Back slowly until you are within inches of the vehicle behind you.

With your foot still on the brake, place your vehicle into DRIVE. Turn the steering wheel sharply toward the lane you are entering. Slowly release the brake and move forward into the lane. When the front bumper of your vehicle clears the rear of the vehicle occupying the parking space in front of you, straighten your wheels and continue moving forward slowly. Turn your steering wheel gradually in the direction of your path of travel.


Parking on Hills

If you are forced to park on a hill:

Turn your wheels so that if your car starts to move by itself, it will roll away from traffic or into the curb (wheels turned into curb).
Set the parking brake.
If you are driving with an automatic transmission, shift into park. If you are driving with a standard transmission, shift into reverse (facing downhill) or first gear (facing uphill).


Parking Lights

Your parking lights must be used at night on any vehicle parked on a roadway or shoulder outside of cities and towns. If you drive with parking lights only (in place of headlights) you are breaking the law.

Parking Privileges for the Disabled

If you are disabled, you do not have to pay parking fees on any public street, highway, or metered space. Your vehicle must display a valid parking placard which is visible from the front and rear of the vehicle. Each side of the placard must have the international symbol of accessibility in a contrasting color in the center. These placards may be obtained from a tag agent or tax collector's office and must be renewed every four years.

Disabled persons must park in spaces reserved for the disabled whenever possible. These spaces are marked by the wheelchair symbol and "Parking by Disabled Permit Only" signs. Vehicles illegally parked in spaces reserved for the handicapped will be ticketed and may be towed.

To prove you are eligible for a placard you are required to have a Proof of Eligibility in the form of a statement from a physician licensed in the United States, the Division of Blind Services of the Department of Education, or the Veterans Administration. You must be severely physically disabled with permanent mobility problems which substantially impair your ability to move or you are certified as legally blind.

The correct procedure that you must follow includes contacting your local county tax collector or tag agent. You must complete Highway Safety Motor Vehicle form number 83039 which is the Application for a disabled person’s parking permit. You must provide proof of eligibility, the Doctor’s Statement, and pay $15.00 for a temporary disabled person parking permit. You must also present a valid Florida driver license or identification card (FS 316.955).

Passing Laws


Passing and Being Passed
7105a_passing_xway.jpg
Proper passing involves the use of good judgment, courtesy, and the ability to make rapid decisions. When you are passing or being passed, remember to plan an escape route in case you need to avoid a collision. Before entering a passing lane, be sure to check for good road traction to ensure that you will not lose control of your vehicle during the passing maneuver. Remain alert and maintain a safe distance between your vehicle and the other vehicles on the road.

Because of the high speeds of travel on freeways and interstates, be extra careful when passing. Stay to the right unless you are passing another vehicle or preparing to make a turn. Passing involves the use of your signals, mirrors, and physically turning your head to check your blind spots. If multiple lane changes are needed, they must be done individually, going through the same procedures for each lane change.

When traveling on a two-lane roadway, remain on the right side of the roadway unless you are passing. Then, pass only when you have enough room to return to the right side of the roadway and when your field of vision is clear.


Passing is Prohibited

Passing is illegal when sight restrictions such as hills or curves make passing unsafe. If it is unsafe to pass on a section of highway, it will be marked as a no-passing zone by signs or markings on the roadway.

Before beginning a passing maneuver on a highway with opposing traffic, you must be sure you have proper clearance. The law states that you must be able to return to your proper lane of travel before any approaching vehicle comes within 200 feet.

Remember, the law in Florida states that passing is prohibited when the view is obstructed or when approaching within 100 feet of any bridge, viaduct, or tunnel - or when approaching within 100 feet of or traversing any railroad grade crossing (FS 316.087).

The pattern of yellow lines on the roadway determines whether passing is permitted. For example, two solid yellow lines on the roadway mean that passing is prohibited. A combination of a solid yellow and a broken yellow line means that you can pass only on the side that has the broken yellow line. If a single broken yellow line is present, either lane of traffic may pass when it is safe to do so.

Safe Passing

Often, passing does not accomplish very much. It simply places you one vehicle ahead of where you originally were, and the time you save is negligible. Before passing, ask yourself the following questions:

Is the pass legal?
Is the pass possible?
Is the pass worth the risk?
Do I have sufficient space to pass?

Then, if you decide the maneuver is still a safe decision, follow these steps to successfully pass:

Check ahead for a clear, safe passing space. This is critical. Keep in mind the time element necessary to accomplish a safe pass. Florida laws require that you be able to get back to your authorized lane of travel before coming within 200 feet of oncoming traffic. If you are going 55 mph, you will need over 1600 feet to safely pass another vehicle.
Make sure to look for hazards such as oncoming vehicles, pedestrians, vehicles approaching from the rear, or merging vehicles.
Check your blind spots by turning your head to make sure no vehicles are in your blind spots. Also check your rear-view and side-view mirrors for vehicles behind you or to your side.
Communicate your intent to pass by signaling other drivers or, if necessary, by flashing your headlights or tapping your horn.
Only pass if you can do it without exceeding the speed limit. Don’t linger in the other vehicle’s blind spots.
Re-check conditions ahead and create a return space for your vehicle, making sure you can see the vehicle you just passed and you are allowing enough clearance.
Signal your return into the lane, check your blind spots, and resume normal driving.

Safety When Being Passed

If another vehicle is trying to pass your vehicle, reduce your speed to allow the passing vehicle to complete the maneuver safely.

Florida law prohibits you from increasing your speed until the vehicle that is passing you has completed the passing maneuver.

It is also a good idea to position your vehicle in the far side of your lane, allowing the vehicle that is passing you greater visibility.

Finally, tap your brakes as a warning to vehicles behind you if you see a hazard ahead.

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Dark Salmon, Coral


For vain is all the toil and trouble
Vain is all the heartbreak
In the end I'll find my solace
In an earthen cradle

So good night
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